Personal Computer

 A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and cost make it feasible for personal use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by end users rather than computer specialists or technicians.

At home, PCs are primarily used for multimedia entertainment, playing PC games, accessing the Internet, etc. Although PCs are intended to be used as single-user systems, it is common to connect them together to form a network. area network (LAN).

It is a microprocessor technology used in any small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for use by an individual, at home or in the office. It is often simply called a personal computer (PC). Examples of personal computers or PCs are microcomputers, desktop computers, laptop computers, tablets.


Personal Computer
Personal Computer


What is personal computer?

In the 1970s, institutional or corporate computer owners had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machine. While individual computer users can develop their own applications, these systems typically run commercial software, free-of-charge software (freeware), which is often proprietary, or free and open-source software, which is provided ready-to-run. , or binary, of the form .

Software for personal computers is usually developed and distributed independently of the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still possible. This contrasts with mobile systems, where software is often only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, and end-user program development can be discouraged by a lack of manufacturer support.

Beginning in the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware dominated the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and later with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating system occupy a minority of the industry This includes Apple's macOS and free and open source Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux.

Personal Computer Terminology

The word "PC" is an acronym for "personal computer". While IBM Personal Computer incorporated the nomenclature into its model name, the term originally described any brand of personal computer.

In some contexts, "PC" is used to contrast with the Apple Macintosh computer "Mac". Since none of these Apple products had mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" (branded) computers.

In 1995, a CBS segment on the growing popularity of the PC reported that the PC was a source of pain and confusion for many newcomers.

Personal Computer History

"Brains" [computers] may one day come down to our level [ordinary people] and help us calculate our income taxes and bookkeeping. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it yet.

A June 1949 news article about the EDSAC computer in the British newspaper The Star, long before the personal computer era.

In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by an operator For example, the ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be operated by one person, albeit a highly trained one. This mode pre-dated batch programming, or the time-sharing mode with multiple users connected to the mainframe computer via a terminal. Computers are built for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes, and can be operated by a person in an interactive fashion.

Examples include the Bendix G15 and LGP-30 of 1956 and the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. Before the 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had access to a computer systems in interactive mode for extended periods, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by an individual.

Personal computers were made possible by major advances in semiconductor technology In 1959, the silicon integrated circuit (IC) chip was developed by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor, and the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor was developed by Muhammad Atala and Don Kang at Bell Labs.

The MOS integrated circuit was commercialized by RCA in 1964, followed by the silicon-gate MOS integrated circuit developed by Federico Fagin at Fairchild in 1968. , in 1971. The first microprocessor-based microcomputers were developed in the early 1970s The widespread commercial availability of microprocessors, beginning in the mid-1970s, made computers affordable for small businesses and individuals.

In what was later called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 previewed the features that would later become staples of the personal computer: e-mail, hypertext, word processing, video conferencing, and the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that was too expensive for private business use at the time.

Early personal computers, usually called microcomputers, were often sold in kit form and in limited quantities, and were mostly of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Programming was minimal with toggle switches to enter commands, and output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use requires the addition of peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, and printers.

Microprocessor N was the first commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on the Intel 8008 microprocessor. It was manufactured since 1972 and sold a few hundred units It was preceded by the Data point 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 was functional, although not adopted for use. The CPU design implemented in the Data point 2200 became the basis for the x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants.

Desktop computer

Before the widespread use of PCs, a computer that could fit on a desk was incredibly small, leading to the designation "desktop". Nowadays, the phrase usually refers to a particular style of computer case Desktop computers come in a variety of styles, from large vertical tower cases to smaller models that can be tucked behind or directly under (and support) the LCD monitor.

While the term "desktop" refers to a computer with a vertically mounted computer tower case, these types often rest on the ground or under a desk. Despite this seeming contradiction, the term "desktop" generally refers to these vertical tower cases and horizontally aligned models that are designed to literally rest on a desk and are therefore better suited to the term "desktop", although both types are specific. Physical system differences aside, these qualify for the "desktop" label in most practical situations. Both styles of computer cases contain system hardware components such as the motherboard, processor chip, and other internal operating parts. Desktop computers include a display screen and an external keyboard. There is an external monitor, which is plugged into ports on the back of the computer case.Desktop computers are popular for home and business computing applications as they leave room on the desk for multiple monitors.

A gaming computer is a desktop computer that typically contains a high-performance video card, processor, and RAM, improving the demands and responsiveness of video games.

An all-in-one computer (also known as a single-unit PC) is a desktop computer that combines the monitor and processor into one unit. A separate keyboard and mouse are standard input devices, along with some monitors with touchscreen capabilities The processor and other working components are usually reduced in size compared to standard desktops, located behind the monitor and configured similarly to laptops.

A net-top computer was launched by Intel in February 2008, characterized by low cost and lean functionality. They were intended to be used with an Internet connection to run web browsers and Internet applications

A home theater PC (HTPC) combines the functions of a personal computer and a digital video recorder It is connected to a TV set or suitably sized computer display and is often used as a digital photo viewer, music and video player, TV receiver and digital video recorder. HTPCs are also referred to as media center systems or media servers The goal is to combine many or all of the elements of a home theater setup into one box HTPCs can also connect to services that offer on-demand movies and TV shows HTPCs can be purchased pre-configured with the necessary hardware and software to add television programming to a PC, or can be assembled from components.

Keyboard computers are computers with a keyboard inside, usually still designed to be connected to an external computer monitor or television. Examples are Atari ST, Amstrad CPC, BBC Micro, Commodore 64, MSX, Raspberry Pi 400 and JX Spectrum.

Laptop

A laptop computer is designed for portability with a "clamshell" design, where the keyboard and computer components are on a single panel, with a hinged second panel containing a flat display screen. Closing the laptop protects the screen and keyboard during transport Laptops usually have a rechargeable battery, increasing their portability. To save power, weight, and space, laptop graphics chips are often integrated into the CPU or chipset and use system RAM, resulting in reduced graphics performance compared to desktop machines, which typically have a graphics card installed. For this reason, desktop computers are preferred over laptops for gaming purposes.

Unlike desktop computers, only minor internal upgrades (such as memory and hard disk drives) are possible due to limited space and power available. Laptops have the same input and output ports as desktops for connecting to external displays, mice, cameras, storage devices, and keyboards. Laptops are also a bit more expensive than desktops, as the miniaturized components for laptops are more expensive.

A desktop replacement computer is a portable computer that offers the full capabilities of a desktop computer Such computers are now large laptops Computers in this class typically include more powerful components and a larger display than typically found in small portable computers, and may have limited battery capacity or batteries.

Netbooks, also called mini notebooks or sub note books, were a subgroup of laptops for general computing tasks and accessing web-based applications. Initially, the primary definition of netbooks was the lack of optical disc drives, smaller size and lower performance than full-sized laptops. In mid-2009 a cellular data plan was offered to users "for free" with the purchase of an extended service contract. Ultra books and Chromebooks have since filled the void left by netbooks As with the generic netbook names, Ultra books and Chromebooks are both spec'd by Intel and Google, respectively.

Tablet

A tablet uses a touchscreen display, which can be controlled using a stylus pen or fingers. Some tablets may use a "hybrid" or "convertible" design, offering a keyboard that can be removed as an attachment, or a screen that can be rotated and folded directly over the keyboard. Some tablets may use desktop-PC operating systems such as Windows or Linux, or may run an operating system designed for tablets. Many tablet computers have USB ports to which a keyboard or mouse can be connected.

Smart Phone

Smart phones are often similar to tablet computers, the difference being that smart phones always have cellular integration. They are usually smaller than tablets, and may not have a slate form factor.

Pocket PC

A Pocket PC is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer (personal digital assistant, PDA) that runs the Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. .NET may have the ability to run an alternative operating system such as BSD or Linux Pocket PCs have many of the capabilities of desktop PCs Many applications are available for handhelds that adhere to the Microsoft Pocket PC specification, many of which are free. Microsoft compatible Pocket PCs can also be used with many other add-ons such as GPS receivers, barcode readers, RFID readers and cameras.

In 2007, with the release of Windows Mobile 6, Microsoft dropped the Pocket PC name in favor of a new naming scheme: devices without an integrated phone were called Windows Mobile Classic instead of Pocket PC, while devices with an integrated phone and touch screen. It's called Windows Mobile Professional.

 

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